State and challenges of water resources in the context of Nepal – Part 3 – Telegraph Nepal

Professor Dr Narendra Man Shakya

Water Resources Engineering

engineering institute

Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM):

“Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process that promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resulting economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems”.

Despite numerous studies on the optimal allocation of water from the major basins of Nepal to their users, no study has yet been carried out using the concept of integrated economic approaches to water resources planning and management to achieve maximum economic benefits as well as to minimize the deficit. supply in the basin.

The consequences of already planned water resource development schemes would have been amazing when this equitable approach is adopted.

The water crisis can be avoided with reasonable productivity through principled IWRM approaches.

In the past, the management of water resources has traditionally been more supply-oriented rather than demand-driven by multiple users.

Water is scarce and the efficient use of these resources is absolutely essential.

Moreover, such equitable allocation of water to all users will be more critical in Nepal’s federal institutional system, sharing water with neighboring countries (eg. Versatile Project Pancheswore) and other high dam reservoir projects (e.g. the Budhigandaki Hydropower Development Project) where accounting for downstream benefits is highly sensitive to the feasibility of the project as a whole.

Thus, the integrated economic planning and management of water resources will ultimately contribute to reducing conflicts between users.

For example, the Government of Nepal has prepared the Nepal Water Resources Basin Master Plan.

The main objective of the Koshi Master Plan Study was to prepare a comprehensive water resources development plan for the Koshi River taking into account the potential for hydropower generation, irrigation, flood control, navigation and others, including inter-basin development schemes for economic development purposes. growth and social betterment.

To achieve this goal, the study was conducted to identify the resources of the Koshi River, determine development needs and opportunities, and form balanced plans for the orderly development of the river.

The target year was set at 2005/2006.

Shwoyambu showed more decline of up to 0.12m to 0.23m.

The proposed extraction rate map prepared through this analysis also indicates that the northern part of the groundwater basin has more water volume available per unit of head drop per year and the extraction rate value is decreasing. as we move from the northern part of the groundwater. basin towards the southern part.

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM):

“Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process that promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resulting economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems”.

Despite numerous studies on the optimal allocation of water from the major basins of Nepal to their users, no study has yet been carried out using the concept of integrated economic approaches to water resources planning and management to achieve maximum economic benefits as well as to minimize the deficit. supply in the basin.

The consequences of already planned water resource development schemes would have been amazing when this equitable approach is adopted.

The water crisis can be avoided with reasonable productivity through principled IWRM approaches.

In the past, the management of water resources has traditionally been more supply-oriented rather than demand-driven by multiple users.

Water is scarce and the efficient use of these resources is absolutely essential.

Moreover, such equitable allocation of water to all users will be more critical in Nepal’s federal institutional system, water sharing with neighboring countries (e.g. Pancheswore multipurpose project) and other high dam reservoir projects (eg the Budhigandaki Hydropower Development Project) where accounting for downstream water benefits is highly sensitive to the feasibility of the project as a whole.

Therefore the integrated economic planning and management of water resources will ultimately help to reduce conflicts between users.

For example, the Government of Nepal has prepared the Nepal Water Resources Basin Master Plan.

The main objective of the Koshi Master Plan was to prepare a comprehensive water resources development plan for the Koshi River taking into account the potential for hydropower generation, irrigation, flood control, navigation and others, including inter-basin development schemes at purposes of economic growth and social betterment.

To achieve this goal, the study was carried out to identify the resources of the Koshi River, determine development needs and opportunities, and form balanced plans for the orderly development of the river.

The target year was set at 2005/2006.

The IWRM approach to maximizing the overall net benefit for all projects can result in lower demand satisfaction most times of the year.

Maximize the benefits for optimal water allocation in the Koshi basin by giving equal priority to future irrigation diversion (irrigate 1.75,000 ha of land through the Kamala system and 15.22 lakh ha through the Koshi) and hydroelectricity with the four proposed reservoirs (res_1: Su- 3; res_2: Su 2; res_3: Su-1; res_4: Sapta-Koshi High Dam) leads to a very low level of demand satisfaction (0 % to 46%) for the proposed Kamala diversion project.

This optimized regulation of projects could be contrary to the original intent of regulating individual projects.

But, if an overall and maximized benefit is desired, this approach may be considered the most appropriate, thus necessitating the revision of master plans, other study reports and policy in this regard.

References:

Asian Development Bank (ADB). Asia Water Development Outlook 2016; Strengthening Water Security in Asia and the Pacific; AfDB: Manila, Philippines, 2016.
CWC, India: Koshi Dam Project Feasibility Report for Indian Government, 1981.
JICA: Master Plan Study on ‘The Koshi River Water Resources Development’, Vol I, II, III, IV and Vt, Japan International Cooperation Agency, For Government of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Nepal, Kathmandu, 1985.
KUKL, (2011). Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) at a glance. Third Anniversary Report, 2066-67, Kathmandu.
Metcalf-and-Eddy (2000), Urban Water Supply Reforms in the Kathmandu Valley. Completion report. Palmer, (2003). Endangered rivers and the conservation movement. Rowman and Littlefield.
Sadoff, CW; Hall, JW; Grey, D.; Aerts, JCJH; Ait-Kadi, M.; Brown, C.; Cox, A.; Dadson, S.; Garrick, D.; Kelman, J.; et al. Securing water, supporting growth: report of the GWP/OECD working group on water security and sustainable growth; University of Oxford: Oxford, UK, 2015.
Schultz, B. and Wrachien, DD, 2002. Irrigation and Drainage Systems: Research and Development in the 21st Century. Irrigation and Drainage, 51:311-327.
Shah, SG and Singh, GN, 2001. Irrigation Development in Nepal Investment, Efficiency and Institution. Research Report Series No. 47, Winrock International, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Sharma, E., N.Chettri, K. Tse-ring, AB Shrestha, F. Jing, P. Mool, M. Eriksson, 2009: Impacts of climate change in the eastern Himalayas. International Center for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu 27 pp.
Sharma, KP, CJ Vorosmarty and B. Moore III, 2000: Sensitivity of Himalayan hydrology to land use and climate change. In: Climatic Change 47, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp.117-139.
Shrestha, AB; CPWake, JE Dibb and PA Mayewski, 1999: Trends in maximum temperatures in and around the Himalayas: an analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971-94. In: Journal of Climate Vol. 12, American Meteorological Society, p. 2775-2786.
Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, 2003. Water Resource Strategy Nepal. Water and Energy Commission Secretariat Kathmandu, Nepal.
WECS (2005) National Water Plan (2002-2027). Kathmandu: Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Government of Nepal.
WECS (2008), Bagmati River Basin Multidimensional Study, 2008.
WECS (2007), Proceedings of the Koshi River Basin Management Workshop, prepared by WECS and WWF Nepal for the Government of Nepal, 2007.

Done.

#Text courtesy: Journal of Alumni Career Ambassadors Association of Nepal (AFCAN) on “Strategies for Water Resources Development of Nepal” edited by Dr Khaga Naath Adhikari.
Published with the permission of AFCAN President, Ambassador Dr. Ram Bhakta Thakur: Ed. Upadhyaya.
Thanks to the eminent author and to AFCAN.

Our contact email address: [email protected]

Comments are closed.